Latihan Otot Teras

Salam Satu Malaysia,

Berikut adalah komen dan pandangan terhadap artikel sebelum ini. Komen ini telah dikemukakan oleh En. Jeffrey Low (Pensyarah UPSI). Di sini beliau telah membandingkan cara melakukan senaman tersebut dan juga sedikit latar belakang tentang latihan otot teras.
Seterusnya, kita guru PJK sedang sibuk mengendalikan ujian SEGAK di sekolah masing-masing. Marilah kita mula satu perbincangan tentang Ujian yang digunakan dan bagaimana kita dapat memperbaiki perlaksanaan Ujian SEGAK ini.

Latihan otot teras (Core stability training). Does it really improve performance?
The purpose of this contribution is to supplement the article with evidence based practice of core stability training (see Willardson, 2007, for a review). Strength and conditioning trainers and fitness gurus have been propagating the benefits of core stability training (CST) as part of the conditioning phase. They recommended that these activities provide a foundation for greater force production from the arms and legs which understandably the main extremities of the human anatomy in sports related movements. Core stability is a dynamic concept that continually changes according to the demands of postural position and external loads on the athlete’s body. New equipments were introduced and traditional static activities were given a new breath. The popularity of this exercise programme mushroomed probably because of the novelties (e.g. balancing on oversized beach balls like some circus acts) rather than empirical evidence. The question now does core stability training really improve performance? Whilst there has been anecdotal evidence on the benefits of using Swiss ball, valid scientific investigations are needed to confirm its potential.
Whilst we wait with bated breath, let’s find out how the oversized beach ball got its name? Swiss ball was named from the country which started using it for physical rehabilitation exercise back in the 1960s. Patients with low back injuries were prescribed such exercises to strengthen their abdominal musculature (McGill, 2001).
Behm, Anderson and Curnew (2002) examined the effectiveness of exercising on this ball, which creates an unstable surface against stable surface (e.g. floor or bench). The side bridge exercise activated greatest amount of core muscle activation, (see http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NEo2QUfkbsg for a description of the exercise) whilst the shoulder press yielded no differences. However, both the shoulder press and chest press either using the bench or the Swiss ball activated significant core muscles. The study concluded that prescription of core stability exercises irrespective of strengthening or enduring the core musculature for healthy athletes or rehabilitation should be done with a destabilising component (i.e. either on a Swiss ball or moving limbs outside the base of support). Similar study compared the maximal voluntary contraction of the rectus abdominis during curl up exercise on the Swiss ball and on the floor. Exercise on the blasted ball resulted in 50% more maximal contraction than exercising on the floor. The researchers concluded that the unstable condition exerted higher demands on the motor system, thus eliciting more stimuli on the muscle. This increased neural activity is thought to improve the strength and endurance of the effected muscle (Vera-Garcia et al., 2000).
Should every gym now be littered with Swiss balls of various colours and sizes, purchased with money gained from disposing the free weights to scrap metal dealers (no pun intended). Although there is empirical data to prove the effectiveness of the CST, few sports’ movements simulate the conditions found exercising on the Swiss ball. The traditional exercise regime with free weights on stable surface still benefits strength and endurance of sport specific movements. Athletes who performed traditional weight training exercise would have improved their core stability provided the activities are conducted with a stable spine. For example, healthy athletes who performed deadlift, squat, power clean are likely to be reaping the benefits of CST without using the Swiss ball. Moreover, studies found using these weights on the Swiss ball allows parallel development of core stability and force production of the limbs (Mc Curdy et al., 2005), thus killing two birds with one stone.
Does CST improve balance? Balance exercises (static and dynamic) are thought to activate the core muscles as sudden loss of balance during a voluntary movement could be physically explained as movement of the centre of gravity (lumbar spine region) outside the base of support. To return the centre of gravity to inside the base of support, postural adjustments need to be made. As such it is thought that core muscles are activated to stabilise the region. Many if not most of all sport skills are performed off balance, greater core stability provides a solid base for force production from the extremities (Cosio-Lima et al., 2003). However, balance is sport and skill specific as study on ice hockey players found negative correlation between skate speed and balance. The ice hockey players were assessed their speed in skating as dynamic balance is thought to be essential for the skill. However, the players performed poorly on the balancing board test, lending to the conclusion that dynamic balance differs from static balance. Swiss ball may not be beneficial to train balance as the results of the study found high level of static balance did not transfer to dynamic balance (Behm et al., 2005).
The empirical evidence of CST presented above breathes a sigh of relief for strength and conditioning trainers and instructors. As we progress in developing athletes with sound training programmes through scientific research (now we can be assured that our quest in producing future athletes are underpinned by scientific principles). Since most if not all sport skills are performed in unstable positions which increase the probability of injuries, CST should be an integral part of the training programme. However, care should be taken by coaches / trainers to be well versed with the protocols and prescribing CST should adhere to the objectives of the conditioning programme (e.g. strength and power during pre season and muscular endurance for post season mesocycles). Future recommendations should now focus on creating new activities for CST that are sports specific.

Behm, D.G., Anderson, K. & Curnew, R.S. (2002). Muscle force and activation under stable and unstable conditions. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 16, 416-422.

McCurdy, K.W., Langford, G.A., Doscher, M.W., Wiley, L.P. & Mallard, K.G.(2005). The effects of short-term unilateral and bilateral lower-body resistance training on measures of strength and power. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 19, 9-15.

McGill, S.M. (2001) Low back stability: From formal description to issues for performance and rehabilitation. Exercise Sport Science Review, 29, 26-31.

Vera-Gracia, F.J., Grenier, S.G. & McGill, S.M.(2000). Abdominal muscle response during curl-ups on both stable and labile surfaces. Physical Therapy, 80, 564-569.

Willardson, J. M. (2007). Core stability training: Applications to sports conditioning programs. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 21, 979-985


Latihan Otot Teras

Salam satu Malaysia,

Latihan otot teras amat penting dalam pengamalan gaya hidup yang sihat dan juga untuk meningkatkan prestasi sukan. Kebanyakkan jurulatih gagal untuk memberi tumpuan terhadap latihan otot teras. Kebanyakkan ginasium komersial menjadikan latihan ini sebagai asas dalam latihan mereka manakala jurulatih pula mengabaikan perkara ini. Berikut adalah sebuah artikel berkaitan latihan otot teras. Saya akan memberi beberapa contoh latihan otot teras dalam post yang berikut. Penghargaan dirakamkan kepada En. S Pathmanathan Pensyarah UMS Sabah, atas bantuan beliau dalam perkara ini.

What is the intent of Core Training?
The intent of core training is to strengthen the muscle groups that stabilize your skeletal structure. These are primarily the muscles in the thoracic area that determine your posture in each position of your body. The first step to improving your posture is getting to know these muscles, then toning them so you can tighten them independently of your lower back's muscles.
Your core muscles serve many vital functions that contribute to your overall health. Let's take a look at key core functions in order to appreciate the importance of core training exercises:

• Foundation for Movement - If your core does not function properly, you'll most likely experience back and spinal pain, as well as increased chances of injury.

• Protection of your Vital Systems - Your core provides a protective shield for your spinal cord and internal organs. The core muscles also function to keep your insides in, where they belong.

• Improves Body Fluids - When your body moves and is exercised from your core, the internal organs are mobilized and stimulated from adhering together. It improves fluid flow through the organs and is very helpful to maintaining normal bowel movement.

• Enhance Circulatory Support - When you exercise from your core, pressure changes occur in the core muscles that assist the heart and extremity muscles to circulate blood and lymphatic fluids throughout the body.

• Good Body Posture and Body Stability - Your core muscles stiffen the spine, rib cage and pelvic girdle so that your head, arms and legs have stable working foundation. These muscles all work in harmony to provide stabilization for your body and to transfer power from the legs to the upper body and vice versa.




The History of Physical Education

This article was downloaded from the internet. As Physical Educators we have to be proud that our discipline has gone through so much of change. Today in Malaysia we are facing many challenges to our profession. Let us firstly learn the history of our discipline and next we will look at the importance of Phys Ed in schools. I need your support in giving me ideas and comments for our common benefit. Comments can be both in English or Bahasa Melayu.
Your friend in Phys Ed

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The field of physical education has gone through many cycles over its long history. These cycles range from a strict authoritarianism to the liberal democracy of today. This transformation to the democracy has opened the field of physical education up to many new sciences, which are creating many new professional opportunities. If the cycles of physical education continue, these new professions will hopefully pave the way to future discoveries and studies of physical education.

The Spartans and Athenians were the first to have a type of physical education. Though very different, both systems served the people and their needs. The Spartan system was similar to a dictatorship. Male children were taken at the age of seven to learn basic military skills while living in barracks. When the children reached the age of fourteen, they began learning group fighting tactics which would allow them to succeed while in the military from the ages of twenty to thirty. Once thirty, the men could then marry a women who had been doing some training of her own in order to make strong babies. The philosophy of the Spartans was basically to allow them to invade other countries if desired, and to prevent other countries from invading them.

The philosophy of the Athenians was quite different compared to the Spartans. The Athenian culture was very democratic, and focused on training the mind and body. Reading and writing was a large part of society as well as physical activity which took place in the center of the city where the gymnasium was located. The physical education philosophy of the Athenians was the high point of physical education for many years.

Some other cycles in physical education that we have evolved from are that of the Romans, the dark ages, and the crusades. The Roman era is a bit disturbing, but is nonetheless a cycle of physical education. Physical education for the Romans was about athletics, which was primarily about entertainment. People were forced to fight to the death, and oftentimes fed to lions. During the dark ages, religion viewed physical education as a waste of time and a work of the devil. The dark ages were a very sedentary time for human civilization. Following the dark ages in approximately 1096, were the crusades. The crusades were a time of muscular Christianity, because of the Muslims conquering Jerusalem. Muscular Christianity is basically Christians believing that the more one trained to become good soldiers, the more Christian a person was. In 1270, the crusades ended and so did the thought of physical education being worthwhile until approximately 1400 when the renaissance period began. Physical education during the renaissance period is quite similar to physical education today. It is done to better oneself, not to be doing something for someone else. The development of physical education had another setback in the 1600's when it was very functional and not a priority. People believed that if it did not have a specific purpose, than it was a waste of time.

During the 1700's, there was a big change in physical education that can be largely attributed to three people: Rousseau, Johan Simon, and Guts Muths. Rousseau was the first person to promote education for the masses and he also thought of play as being educational. In 1712, Rousseau invented an activity that is still used by millions of children everyday, recess. Johan Simon was the first physical education teacher and believed physical education should be taught along with reading and writing. Simon believed physical education should include a lot of physical labor. Guts Muths developed a series of gymnastic apparatuses and believed physical education developed very important social skills. These people of the 1700's and the things they did began paving the road to where we are today.
During the 1800's, physical education programs were finding their way into universities which contributed to many things we have today. New sports were being invented, intramurals were being brought into schools, women began exercising, gymnasiums could be found in most colleges, and many recreational areas and parks were being built in order to decrease the crime rate. This continued on into the 1900's which brought on the creation of the National Collegiate Athletic Association to regulate college athletics, and the golden age of sports during the 20' and 30's. During this golden age of sport, the number of people in sport increased dramatically, the number of teachers increased, and physical education began moving toward the involvement of sport. In 1941, World War II began which brought a big shock along with it. Of the first 2 million males drafted, 45% failed their physical. With this, physical education began to be very strongly pushed in schools in order to improve the health of the American people.

Since W.W. II, the United States has continued to press the importance of physical education, which brings it to where it is today, a highly complex field with many different sub-disciplines. The sub-disciplines are:
--"Exercise physiology, which is the study of bodily systems and their reactions to the stress of exercise.
--Kinesiology, which is the study of how the muscular system moves the bony structure of the body.
--Biomechanics, which is the study of the human body as a mechanical system, utilizing principles and applications from physics.
--Motor learning, which is the changes in motor performance related to experience and practice.
--Sport sociology, which is the social structure, social patterns, and social organization of groups engaged in sport.
--Sport Psychology, which is the stud of behavioral and psychological issues and problems in sport.
--Sport pedagogy, which is the study of the processes of teaching and coaching, the outcomes of such endeavors, and the content of fitness, physical-education, and sport-education programs." (Siedentop)

These sub-disciplines have created many new jobs for people in the field of education, and will surely branch off to form others in the future.

Physical education has definitely come a long way since the Spartans and Athenians. From an authoritarian type system to promoting lifespan physical education with many sciences studying the different intangibles of physical education in order to better the mind and body. These new sciences have obviously broadened the "umbrella of physical education", but when looking to the future, there really is no end in sight. The growing "umbrella" will continue getting larger as new thoughts and ideas come, and with them, new sciences also.



Salam satu Malaysia,
Tahun ini sekolah kita akan perkenalkan 3 permainan baru dalam kokurikulum. Harapan kami adalah untuk mendedahkan murid-murid SMK BPJ (A) kepada sebanyak permainan yang boleh semasa mereka di bagku sekolah. Selain itu, permainan yang dipilih tidak dimainkan di banyak sekolah. Ini bermakna murid kita mempunyai peluang untuk menyertai kejohanan-kejohanan di peringkat yang lebih tinggi. Permainan-permainan yang akan diperkenalkan adalah kabadi, sofbol dan bola baling. Sebagai permulaan kami akan memberi sedikit maklumat tentang permainan Kabadi. Maklumat ini diperolehi dari Laman Web Persatuan Kabadi Dunia. Sekian.

Kabaddi is aptly known as the "GAME OF THE MASSES "due to its popularity, simplicity, easy to comprehend rules, and public appeal. The game calls for no sophisticated equipment what so ever, which makes it a very popular sport in the developing countries. It is basically an out door sport played on clay court, of late the game is being played on synthetic surface indoors with great success. The duration of the game is 45 minutes for MEN & Junior BOYS with a 5 minutes break in between for the teams to change sides. The duration of the game is 35 minutes with a 5 mininutes break in between for WOMEN, GIRLS, Sub-Junior BOYS and Sub-Junior GIRLS.

Kabaddi is a combative team game, played on a rectangular court, either out-doors or indoors with seven players on the ground for each side. Each side takes alternate chances of offence and defense. The basic idea of the game is to score points by raiding into the opponents court and touching as many defense players as possible without getting caught on a single breath. During play, the players on the defensive side are called "Antis" while the player of the offense is called the "Raider". Kabaddi is perhaps the only combative sport in which attack is an individual attempt while defense is a group effort. The attack in Kabaddi is known as a 'Raid'. The antis touched by the raider during the attack are declared 'out' if they do not succeed in catching, the raider before he returns to home court. These players can resume play only when their side scores points against the opposite side during their raiding turn or if the remaining players succeed in catching the opponent's raider.

Yoga, the Indian science to control body and mind through meditation and self-control .plays an integral part of Kabaddi. The raider has to enter the opponent's court chanting the word "Kabaddi" while holding his breath and has to continue to do so until he returns to his home court. This is known as 'Cant', which is closely related to "Pranayama” of yoga. While Pranayama is about with holding breath in order to exercise internal organs, cant is the means to with hold breath with vigorous physical activity. This is perhaps one of the few sports to combine yoga with hectic physical activity.

The game calls for agility, good lung capacity, muscular co-ordination, presence of mind and quick responses. For a single player to take on seven opponents is no mean task, requires dare as well as an ability to concentrate and anticipate the opponent's moves.



The sport has a long history dating back to pre-historic times. It was probably invented to ward off croup attacks by individuals and vice-versa. The game was very popular in the southern part of Asia played in its different forms under different names. A dramatized version of the great Indian epic, the "Mahabharata". has made an analogy of the game to a tight situation faced by Abhimaneu, the heir of ' the Pandava kings when he is surrounded on all sides by the enemy. Buddhist literature speaks of the Gautam Buddha playing Kabaddi for recreation. History also reveals that princes of yore played Kabaddi to display their strength and win their brides!

The game, known as Hu-Tu-Tu in Western India, Ha-Do-Do in Eastern India & Bangladesh, Chedugudu in Southern India and Kaunbada in Northern India, has undergone a sea chance through the ages. Modem Kabaddi is a synthesis of the game played in its various forms under different names.


Amar literally means invincible. This is a form of Kabaddi, which is played based -on points scored by both sides. The play field has no specific measurements and nine to eleven players constitute each of the teams. In this form of Kabaddi, there is no 'out' and .revival' system or 'Iona' but time is the deciding factor. The main advantage of this form of the game is that tile players remain in the court through out the match and are able to give their best performance

This form of Kabaddi is played with nine players on either side, in a play-field of no specific measurements. The principle characteristic of this form of Kabaddi is that a player who is put out has to remain out until all his team members are put out. The team that is successful in putting out all the players of the opponent's side secures a point. This is akin to the present system of 'Iona'. After all the players are put out, the team is revived and the game continues. The game continues until five or seven 'Iona' are secured. The game has no fixed time. The main disadvantage of this form of Kabaddi is that the player Is not in position to give his best performance since he is likely to remain out for the better part of the match until a Iona is scored.

This form of Kabaddi is the closest to the present game. In this form of Kabaddi, players are put out and revived and the game lasts for 40 minutes with a 5-minute break in between. The team consists of nine players on each side. The team that puts out all the players on the opponent's side scores four extra points for a 'Iona'.
The winning team is the one that scores the maximum number of points at the end of 40 minutes. The play field is bigger in this form of Kabaddi and the 'cant' was different in various regions. Modem Kabaddi resembles this form of Kabaddi a great deal especially with regard to 'out & revival system' and 'Iona'. The present form of Kabaddi is a synthesis of all these forms of Kabaddi with a good number of changes in the rules and regulations.


Kabaddi attained National status in the year 1918. Maharashtra was the pioneer state to bring the game to the National platform and give it further popularity. Standard rules and regulations were formulated in 1918 but were brought out in print in the year 1923 and in this very year, an All India Tournament was organized at Baroda with these rules. Kabaddi has not looked back since then and numerous tournaments are organized all over the country through out the year.

Kabaddi received its first Inter-National exposure during the 1936 Berlin Olympics, demonstrated by Hanuman Vyayam Prasarak Mandal, Amaravati, Maharashtra. The game was introduced in the Indian Olympic Games at Calcutta, in the year 1938. It was in 1950, that the All India Kabaddi Federation came into existence. Regular conduct of National level championships as per laid down rules and regulations began with effect from the year 1952. After the formation of the Amateur Kabaddi Federation of India, the first men's Nationals were held in Madras (now re-named Chennai), while the women's Nationals were held in Calcutta in the year 1955.

The rules were modified and some changes were introduced to the game during the National Championships held at New Delhi in the year 1954. Efforts were made to demonstrate the game in the World Youth Festival held at Moscow in the year 1957, but due to various unforeseen reasons, this could not be accomplished. The game was included in the curriculum of the Indian University Sports Control Board as a main sports discipline in the year 1961.

The game got further recognition when the School Games Federation of India included it in the school games in the year 1962. This body has taken up the responsibility of organizing state and national level competitions for school going children all over the country in various sports on a regular basis, every year.

The Amateur Kabaddi Federation of India, the new body, came into existence in the year 1972. This body was formed with a view to popularize the game in the neighboring countries and organize regular National level Men and Women tournaments. After the formation of this body, sub-junior and junior sections were included in Kabaddi national level tournaments, as a regular feature.

Kabaddi was included in the curriculum of Regular Diploma courses in coaching conducted by the National Institute of Sports, the premier institute to develop sports in the country with effect from the year 1971. There after, qualified coaches in Kabaddi are being produced every ear. The neighboring countries, Nepal & Bangladesh also send I their coaches for the diploma course in various disciplines including Kabaddi, regularly. These qualified coaches are equipped to train players at different levels in a systematic manner with sports science back up.

In the year 1974, the Indian men's team toured Bangladesh as part of the cultural exchange program to play five test matches in different parts of the country. The Bangladesh returned the visit in the year 1979 and played five test matches in India.

The Asian Amateur Kabaddi Federation was formed in the year 1.978, during the silver jubilee celebrations of National Kabaddi Championships in India, organized at Bhilai, Madhya Pradesh. The first Asian Championship in Kabaddi was organized in Calcutta, in the year 1980. A goodwill tour was organized in the year 1981 in which, the Indian men & women teams visited Thailand, Japan and Malaysia to play exhibition Kabaddi matches. Federation Cup Kabaddi matches also commenced in the year 1981.

Kabaddi was included as a demonstration game in the IX Asian Games hosted by India in the year 1982. In the year 1984, an open Inter- National tournament was organized at Bombay (now renamed Mumbai), in India. During the Tri-Centenary celebrations of the city of Calcutta, an Inter-National Invitation Kabaddi Tournament was organized in the city.
The South Asian Federation included Kabaddi as a regular sports discipline from the year 1984. Kabaddi was played for first time in the SAF games at Dacca, Bangladesh. Since then Kabaddi is being included in every SAF Games, which is played every once in two years. For the first time in the Inter-National Kabaddi scenario, India faced defeat at the hands of Pakistan and had to be satisfied with second place, winning the silver medal, in the VI SAF Games at Dacca, Bangladesh, in the year 1993.

The second Asian Championship was hosted by India and was organized at Jaipur, Rajasthan. Malaysia and Japan participated for the first time in this Championship. In the XI Asian Games held in the year 1990 at Beijing, China, Kabaddi was included in the main disciplines. This was a major landmark in the history of Kabaddi. India won the Gold Medal, which was a proud and unforgettable moment for Kabaddi lovers who had strived to bring Kabaddi to the Asian platform. India has been the reigning champion in the succeeding Asian Games held in 1994 at Hiroshima, Japan and in the Asian Games held in 1998 at Bangkok in Thailand.

An International Women Kabaddi tournament commenced in the year 1995, called the Nike Gold Cup, sponsored by NIKE, Japan. The III Asian Championship was hosted by Sri-Lanka in the year 2000. For the first time, Sri-Lanka secured a silver medal, defeating Kabaddi stalwarts Pakistan, in this Championship.

Kabaddi will be introduced to the African countries as a demonstration sport in the Afro-Asian Games, which is to be hosted by India in the year 2002. This is a feather in the cap for Kabaddi lovers and has been made possible thanks to the efforts of Mr. J.S.Gehlot, President, Amateur Kabaddi Federation of India and the Indian Olympic Association.


There is a gradual but marked change in the style of the game during the past fifty years. What was once considered a game of brawn is not so now. The introduction of more techniques to the came has made it relatively easier for a player with more skill than weight to score points against better-built opponents.

Over the years, the game's pattern changed along with the rules and the size of the playfield. The concept of Kabaddi as an Indigenous Game of India first came up during the year 1921 in Maharashtra, when a certain framework of rules was prepared and the game was played on the pattern of Sanjeevani & Gemini in a combined form. A special committee was constituted in 1923 which amended the rules. These rules were applied in an All India Kabaddi Tournament organized during the same year.

It was the Hanuman Vyayam Prasarak Mandal, Amaravati, Maharashtra, which took up the task of organizing and developing Kabaddi in a more systematic & scientific manner. This Institution believes in the maxim " A healthy mind in a healthy body", and has been doing yeoman's service to sports in general and indigenous games in particular, over the years. During the years 1927 to 1952, Kabaddi was played in different parts of the country based on rules framed by the various clubs and organizing committees, which mushroomed and gained in prominence. There were frequent disputes over the rules during tournaments owing to lack of uniformity in the rules and regulations followed in various parts of the country.
In Maharashtra, the pioneering state to regularize the game and bring it to the National platform, Kabaddi, which was known as "Hu-Tu-Tu", was played according to the rules framed by the Deccan Gymkhana from 1928 to I 938.

The introduction of the game to the Inter-national arena as a demonstration game in the 1936 Berlin Olympics led to the inclusion of Kabaddi in the list of priority games of the Indian Olympic Committee, in the year 1940. Thereafter, Inter-provincial Kabaddi tournaments were organized biannually.

The matches at the district and provincial level were played as per the rules framed by the Akhil Maharashtra Sharirik Shikshan Mandal, while the Inter-Provincial Championships were based on Buck's Rules of Games and Sports, published by Mr. H.C Buck, Founder principal of YMCA College of Physical Education, Madras.

The Indian Olympic Games were re-named as National Games in the year 1952 and are since being organized once in a year instead of biannually. The All India Kabaddi Federation, which was formed in the year 1952 appointed a 'Rules Sub-Committee' with the express purpose of laying down standard rules and regulations to be followed by affiliated provincial units all over the country. A new set of rules were framed by the Rules Sub-Committee based on Buck's Rules and the game rules followed till then by the Akhil Maharashtra Sharirik Shikshan Mandal.

The game's pattern also changed over the years, along with the standardization of rules and regulations. Some of the major changes in the game's pattern include the introduction of the Unproductive Raid Rule, Time Out system, Bonus Line Game, etc that did not change the basic structure of the game but all the same had a lot of impact. Some of the major changes that had an impact on the game are being elaborated in this chapter for the benefit of the readers.

The Asian Amateur Kabaddi Federation at the behest of certain member countries introduced the Unproductive Raid Rule. The 'rule reads as follows. "If in three consecutive raids by a side no point is scored by either side, the opponent's will get a point. The referee shall immediately declare such point which is to be recorded in the running score sheet by cutting the number with a cross mark "X". The counts of such unproductive raids shall not be carried over to the game after 'Lona', recess at half time and to extra time."[Rules of Kabaddi Asian Amateur Kabaddi Federation 1980]

As per the rule, in case no point is scored in three consecutive raids, the opponent's side automatically gains a point. The referee is to immediately declare the point which shall be recorded in the running score sheet with the mark 'X'. Though the score sheets records the scoring of a point, there is to be no revival of teammates as in the normal points scored. The idea behind the introduction of this rule was to make sure that the raider went all out to struggle and gain points in order to avoid the risk of giving away points to the opponent's side through three consecutive unproductive raids. However, it did not work out the way in which it was visualized, since the game lost some of its thrill and the scores did not reflect the true picture of the team's performance.

After practicing the rule for three years in the National as well as Inter-National level, it was unanimously decided by the Asian Amateur Kabaddi Federation and the Amateur Kabaddi federation of India to cancel the rule. Now the rule is not in force at either the National or the inter- National level anymore.

The time out system has recently been introduced in the Asian and Amateur Kabaddi Federation of India rules. Hither to, "Time Out" was allowed when called by the captain of the team, with the permission of the referee, only in the event of injury of a player, not exceeding two minutes. Even in such an instance, no player on either side was allowed to leave the court without the permission of the referee.

The Time Out Rule reads:
" Each team shall be allowed to take two 'time out' of 30 seconds in each half. Such time out may be called by the captain/coach of the team with the permission of the referee."
• During the time out, team shall not leave the ground. Any violation is committed by the player/s/coach; a technical point shall be awarded to the opponent team.
• Official time out: In the event of any injury to a player only, the referee shall call such time out. Such time out should not exceed two minutes."
[Rules of Kabaddi published by Mr. G.C. Bhargava, Chairman Referee's Board.]
The bonus line rule came into existence in the year 1978 as an out-come of some experiments conducted during a workshop organized by the Amateur Kabaddi Federation of India in the year 1976, to make the game more interesting. The Bonus Line is a line drawn parallel to the baulk line at a distance of one meter from the baulk line towards the end line.
The rule reads:
• Bon-us Line should be drawn at a distance of one meter from the baulk line towards the end lines.
• One point shall be awarded to the raider when he completely crosses the Bonus Line. If the raider is caught, he shall be declared out and the opponent shall be awarded one point. One point shall also be awarded to the raider for having crossed the bonus line first. In this situation, the raider shall be awarded first point.
• The bonus line will be applicable when there are minimum six players in the court. The bonus point shall be awarded by the Referee/Umpire after the completion of the raid, by showing thumb upwards towards the side which scores.
• There shall be no revival for bonus point.
• The bonus point shall be marked in the shape of a triangle in the running score.
• If the raider after crossing the bonus line reaches home court safely touching one or more antis he will be awarded one bonus point in addition to the numbers."
It is further clarified that crossing the Bonus Line is not compulsory and this rule applies only when the raider crosses the bonus line before the struggle. This rule makes the game more interesting since agile raiders can score points for their side without the risk of a struggle. A good defense is required to counter the raider's move to cross the Bonus Line and as such, the defense will concentrate on the Bonus Line, which will make the playing area smaller and increase the game's tempo. Without the Bonus Line, it is possible that both sides begin very cautiously and end up with zero or single digit points, which makes the match very dull and slow. It is also possible that neither the raider nor the defense will take any risk, which will make the result of the match very predictable.

This rule is being followed in the Kabaddi tournaments at all levels in India and efforts are being made to include the rule at the Asian Level. In the meeting of the Asian Amateur Kabaddi Federation held during the SAF Games at Katmandu, Nepal 1999, it was decided that the Bonus Line Rule be adopted by all member countries on an experimental basis for competitions at National level so as to consider the inclusion of the rule in the next Asian Games 2002.



Dear all,
Welcome to our Blog. This blog was originally created sometime in December. After much deliberation the sports sec and head of Phys Ed decided to combine our sections into a single blog. Through this blog we hope to highlight school sporting activities and also information about Phys Ed.

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The makers of future champions